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slavery reports

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Out of the Shadows: Child marriage and slavery
This report reviews the literature available on child marriage to show that a potentially high proportion of children in marriage are in slavery.  Despite a good deal of publicity around child marriage its links with slavery have received very little attention to date.  As not all child marriage (involving under 18 year-olds) is slavery, the report outlines the relevant international slavery framework to help clarify when child marriage could amount to slavery.  It also notes gaps at the international level for addressing child marriage as a slavery issue, and at the national level in terms of tackling it in law and practice.  It also deals with the complexity of root causes.   
Catherine Turner
Anti-Slavery International 2013
Download the PDF file: Child Marriage report (774.12KB)
Report summary: Child marriage summary (68.86KB)

WAHAYA. Domestic and sexual slavery in Niger
This report focuses on the ‘wahaya’ practice in Niger, whereby girls and women of ‘slave caste’ are bought and sold as unofficial wives. They are referred to as ‘fifth wives’, as they are additional to the four wives permitted to Niger, but they are not officially married to their master and therefore have none of the legal rights and protection to which legal wives would have recourse. 'Wahaya' are essentially slaves used for domestic labour and sexual gratification.
The report presents testimonies from individual wahaya to expose the shocking realities of the practice and calls for efforts to end these forced unions.
Galy Kadir Abdelkader and Moussa Zangaou
Anti-Slavery International 2012 Download PDF file: Wahaya English (397.17KB)

Programme de prevention et de resolution des conflicts fonciers intercommunautaires en Mauritanie

Traditionnellement, les mauritaniens d’ascendance esclave (principalement les Haratines) ont été privés du droit de posséder des terres ; un grand nombre de Haratines continue à travailler les terres des clans de leurs anciens maîtres. Pendant les années 80, les réformes aux lois foncières furent introduites envisageant l’appropriation et la redistribution des terres par l’Etat, en vue de permettre aux Haratines de réclamer les droits sur les terres qu’ils cultivaient. Toutefois, à cause de l’application incomplète et biaisée des réformes, les terres affectées par l’Etat appartenaient surtout aux communautés ordinaires, et celles-ci furent redistribuées aux élites beidanes. Ensuite, après les expulsions de 1989, les terres des négro-mauritaniens forcés à quitter le pays furent souvent accordées aux Haratines.
Aujourd’hui, alors qu’un nombre croissant de personnes d’ascendance esclave cherche à posséder des terres, et alors que les réfugiés négro-mauritaniens retournent pour réclamer leurs propriétés foncières, les droits à la terre sont plus conflictuels que jamais. Ce rapport analyse l’échec des réformes foncières, les divers types de conflits fonciers qui existent, et les mesures qui pourraient prévenir et résoudre de tels conflits.
Anti-Slavery International 2011
Download PDF file   Mauritania Land Report (1082.76KB)

Arrested Development:Discrimination and slavery in the 21st Century
Discrimination is a pivotal part of slavery because it allows people to disengage their humanity and justify or tolerate the violation of other people's human rights. Discrimination also limits certain groups' access to education, jobs and healthcare, leaving them to subsist at the margins of society where they are extremely vulnerable to enslavement as they look for ways to provide for themselves and their families. This publication highlights what action needs to be taken by governments and other international agencies to ensure that every human being - without exception - should be able to live a life free from slavery.
Mike Kaye
Anti-Slavery International 2008
ISBN:978 0 900918 66 7
Download PDF file   Arrested Development (2665.76KB)

1807-2007: Over 200 years of campaigning against slavery
This publication gives an overview of the Transatlantic Slave Trade and considers the factors that led isolated voices of protest to develop into a popular movement in less than 20 years, helping to bring about the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. It also traces how after the end of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, new forms of slavery began to manifest themselves and how they were challenged through popular campaigns and the development of international standards to prohibit them. It also considers what action needs to be taken to free the millions of people in slavery today.
Mike Kaye
Anti-Slavery International 2005
ISBN 0 900918 61 6 
Download PDF file   1807-2007.pdf (1226.47KB)
The Cocoa Industry in West Africa: A history of exploitation
This report provides an in-depth analysis of how cocoa is produced and how child and slave labour enter its chain of production. It relates the history of cocoa and explores how this commodity fits within a global market. Drawing on a wide range of sources, it concludes with recommendations for consumers, the chocolate industry and governments on actions needed to address this serious problem.
Anti-Slavery International 2004 
Download PDF file  Cocoa Report 2004 (1361.96KB)
Slavery in Niger: Historical, legal and contemporary perspectives
Study on slavery in Niger.
Anti-Slavery International and Association Timidria 2004
Also available as a PDF download in French 
Download PDF file   Slavery in Niger (737.50KB)
Abolishing Slavery and its Contemporary Forms
Paper prepared by David Weissbrodt and Anti-Slavery International.
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 2002
Ref: HR/PUB/02/4
Download PDF file  Weissbrodt Report (891.24KB)

Poverty,Development and the Elimination of Slavery
Discussion paper
Mike Kaye and Aidan McQuade
Anti Slavery International, October 2007
Download PDF file: Poverty, Development and the Elimination of Slavery (442.15KB)

Bonded labour is probably the least known but widest used form of slavery today
©Pete Pattisson /


children in school

Former Restaveks, child domestic servants, at a summer camp organised as rehabilitation by Foyer Maurice Sixto
©Pete Pattisson /