Family working in brick kiln in India
Family working in brick kiln in Punjab, India

Legal guide: identification, rescue, rehabilitation and prosecution of bonded labour in the brick kiln industry

December 2019

This guide is intended to equip activists with legal knowledge to eradicate the bonded labour system in India’s brick kiln industry. The brick kiln industry employs more than 10 million workers and is one of the bonded labour prone industries in India. Workers pawn their health, safety, social security, their children’s health and education in exchange for a bare sustenance. This guide provides tools for the identification, rescue, rehabilitation and prosecution of cases of bonded labour, focusing mainly on the implementation of the Bonded Labour Act and other applicable laws and procedures. It also suggests strategies that may be useful when dealing with the tough challenges faced in the process.

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Slavery in India’s Brick Kilns & the Payment System: way forward in the fight for fair wages, decent work and eradication of slavery

September 2017

Report revealing shocking levels of debt bondage and child slavery in brick kilns across Punjab. The report found that the recruitment and payment systems underpin this cycle of slavery, trapping seasonal migrant workers in bonded labour year after year, leaving women unpaid and not treated as workers, and encouraging child labour. It identified changing the piece-rate payment system into a time-based one, where workers are paid individually and regularly, as a systemic change that would help break the cycle of bonded and child labour.

Submission on bonded labour, trafficking and domestic work in India

September 2016

UN’s Universal Periodic Review submission on bonded labour, trafficking and domestic work in India, 2016. The submission by Anti-Slavery International, Jan Jagriti Jendra, The National Domestic Workers’ Movement, and Volunteers for Social Justice.

Submission on Trafficking in Persons Bill

July 2016

India: Submission on the Trafficking of Persons Bill 2016, with a focus on those trafficked for forced and bonded labour.

Forced labour in the brick kiln sector in India

August 2015

State of Play: Forced Labour in India’s brick kilns.

Joint submission for the Universal Periodic Review of Nepal, 23rd Session

March 2015

Anti-Slavery International, Informal Sector Service Center (INSEC) & Backward Society Education (BASE)

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Slavery on the high street. Forced labour in the manufacture of garments for international brands.

June 2012

Anti-Slavery International.

New report from Anti-Slavery International exposes how top UK high street brands are selling clothing made by girls in slavery in southern India. Our research has uncovered the routine use of forced labour of girls and young women in the spinning mills and garment factories of five Indian clothing manufacturers that supply major western clothing retail brands.

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Poverty, Discrimination and Slavery: The reality of bonded labour in India, Nepal and Pakistan

November 2008

Anti-Slavery International, Krishna Prasad Upadhyaya.

This report is a study of the reasons why bonded labour, a contemporary form of slavery, persists in India, Nepal and Pakistan. In particular, it examines the effectiveness of state interventions against bonded labour. This report reflects the main findings of research carried out by CEC, GEFONT and PILER between 2004 and 2006 into some of the obstacles to the eradication of bonded labour, the reasons why bonded labour persists, and into the interventions that have been made since anti-bonded legislation came into force in South Asia. It includes a number of recommendations which if fully implemented would lead to the eradication of bonded labour in South Asia. ISBN: 978-0-900918-70-4.

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Forced Labour in the 21st Century

November 2001

Anti-Slavery International, ICFTU.
This booklet highlights the main ways in which forced labour manifests itself internationally, including through slavery, bonded labour, trafficking and child labour. Case studies and pictures are provided throughout. ISBN: 0 9009 18 50 0.

The Enslavement of Dalit and Indigenous Communities in India, Nepal and Pakistan Through Debt Bondage

February 2001

Anti-Slavery International.

This paper, submitted to the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights, describes the gross violation of the rights of millions of people in India, Pakistan and Nepal who are trapped in debt bondage and forced to work to repay loans. It explores evidence which shows that 80-98 per cent of bonded labourers are from communities designated as dalits.