Young woman picking cotton in Uzbekistan wearing face mask
Woman picking cotton in Uzbekistan
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Turkmen cotton and the risk of forced labour in global supply chains

March 2019

This report brings the strong links between Turkey and Turkmenistan to light. Being the 11th largest cotton producer in the world, Turkmenistan’s apparel and textile exports pose a significant risk of forced labour tainting global supply chains and present a challenge to brands’ due diligence. Anti-Slavery International has documented cases of Turkish enterprises that operate in Turkmenistan and claim to sell their products to well-known international brands. These links show that Turkey is acting as the main gateway for its cotton products to global supply chains, and brands should be aware of it.

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Sitting on pins and needles

December 2018

This report is a rapid assessment of labour conditions in Vietnam’s export-oriented textile and garment sector. The findings of the report, that highlight the risk of forced labour, child labour and child slavery, showcase the need for pan-European legislation that includes mandatory human rights due diligence at the EU level. As the second largest garment producer in Asia, and key trading partner of the EU, the Vietnam case was worth looking at. With Vietnam and the EU in the middle of negotiations on a future trade agreement, this study proves the EU should set higher standards for those it chooses to trade with.

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A call for pan-European action to tackle forced labour and child labour in global supply chains

June 2018

This briefing for European policy makers outlines the increased risk of forced and child labour, in global supply chains of goods and services. It argues that extant national and EU law and policies are insufficient to eradicate slavery in supply chains, since they cover only specific sectors (such as conflict minerals or timber) or generic transparency requirements. Anti-Slavery International calls for a systematic, pan-European approach to tackling forced and child labour in global supply chains that includes binding due diligence, requiring businesses to proactively tackle human rights abuses throughout their supply chains.

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Slavery in India’s Brick Kilns & the Payment System: way forward in the fight for fair wages, decent work and eradication of slavery

September 2017

Report revealing shocking levels of debt bondage and child slavery in brick kilns across Punjab. The report found that the recruitment and payment systems underpin this cycle of slavery, trapping seasonal migrant workers in bonded labour year after year, leaving women unpaid and not treated as workers, and encouraging child labour. It identified changing the piece-rate payment system into a time-based one, where workers are paid individually and regularly, as a systemic change that would help break the cycle of bonded and child labour.

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Slavery on the high street. Forced labour in the manufacture of garments for international brands.

June 2012

Anti-Slavery International.

New report from Anti-Slavery International exposes how top UK high street brands are selling clothing made by girls in slavery in southern India. Our research has uncovered the routine use of forced labour of girls and young women in the spinning mills and garment factories of five Indian clothing manufacturers that supply major western clothing retail brands.

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End Child Trafficking in West Africa: Lessons from the Ivorian cocoa sector

December 2010

Anti-Slavery International, Paul Robson.

This report finds that trafficking of children to cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire still occurs. The research found significant numbers of young people in Mali and Burkina Faso who had worked as children in cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire in the last five years. The practices occur in the context of large-scale movements of people within the region including the trafficking of children to other agricultural activities and to other sectors.

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Forced Labour in North Korean Prison Camps

December 2007

Anti-Slavery International, Norma Kang Muico.

This report focuses on returned North Korean migrants who are subjected to forced labour in North Korean prison camps following their deportation from China. The findings of the report are based on interviews carried out with North Koreans who were subjected to forced labour while in detention. The report includes photographs and 30 cases. Most of those interviewed were subjected to forced labour before being prosecuted, which violates international standards as well as North Korea’s domestic law. The report also outlines what measures need to be taken to address this situation (also available in Korean, see translations page)

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Trafficking for Forced Labour: UK Country Report

December 2006

Klára Skrivánková, Anti-Slavery International
The result of research carried out by Anti-Slavery International between 2005 and 2006 with the aim of finding out more about trafficking for forced labour in the United Kingdom. This was a qualitative rather than quantative project, which aimed to provide information about how migrants become trafficked and which industries in the UK are affected. Also available an executive summary and policy recommendations.

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Trafficking for Forced Labour in Europe

November 2006

Anti-Slavery International.

Report on a study in the UK, Ireland, the Czech Republic and Portugal This report looks at the various sectors and industries in which trafficking into forced labour occurs including agriculture, construction, domestic work and hospitality. Includes policy recommendations at a European level.

trafficking in women to the middle east report covert

Trafficking in Women, Forced Labour and Domestic Work: In the Context of the Middle East and Gulf region

November 2006

Anti-Slavery International.

This report investigates the experiences of women migrant domestic workers in the Middle East and Gulf, the dynamics and workings of the migration process and whether and how it contributes to trafficking. Also included is an examination of some of the key, inter-connecting dynamics between slavery, trafficking, migration and forced labour, focusing particularly on examples of sending, receiving and transit countries including Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen.

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Forced Labour in the 21st Century

November 2001

Anti-Slavery International, ICFTU.
This booklet highlights the main ways in which forced labour manifests itself internationally, including through slavery, bonded labour, trafficking and child labour. Case studies and pictures are provided throughout. ISBN: 0 9009 18 50 0.