Precarious Journeys: Mapping vulnerabilities of victims of trafficking from Vietnam to Europe
This research was conducted by Every Child Protected Against Trafficking (ECPAT UK), Anti-Slavery International (Anti-Slavery) and Pacific Links Foundation (Pacific Links). Over one and a half years the research investigated the issue of human trafficking from Vietnam to the UK, and through Europe; specifically Poland, the Czech Republic, France and the Netherlands to the UK. This report summarises the main findings of the research. It highlights that whilst there are many vulnerabilities which result in a person leaving Vietnam, vulnerabilities are not inherent in all Vietnamese migrants. Situational and contextual factors can increase vulnerability and risk of trafficking across all aspects of a migrant’s journey from Vietnam to Europe.
- Read the full report: (2.7MB) Precarious Journeys – full report.
- Read the summary: Precarious Journeys – summary Report
Places of Safety: Principles that underpin early support provision for survivors of trafficking
The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group, along with The British Red Cross, ATLEU and The Human Trafficking Foundation have produced a list of 10 core principles in a new guide for services providing Places of Safety and early support for adult survivors. These 10 principles, when taken together, are the minimum standards that are required if Places of Safety are to meet their intended purpose. The principles are complementary and each one is necessary: the absence of any of the principles puts at risk the victim-centred nature of any service. Places of Safety need to be able to evidence their ability to operate a truly victim-centred service. Services should meet national and international legal standards and be able to demonstrate competence.
Download PDF: Places of Safety: Principles that underpin early support provision for survivors of trafficking
Trafficking survivor care standards
October 2018. Human Trafficking Foundation (with input from the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group)
The trafficking survivor care standards were developed in conjunction with experts in the anti trafficking sector with the aim of providing a blueprint for uk-wide service providers offering high quality care to adult survivors of modern slavery, including trafficking. The standards provide a flexible framework with guiding principles and practical recommendations that support agencies can incorporate into their own existing policies and procedures. The ultimate goal is to promote an integrated, holistic and empowering approach that places the real needs of survivors at the centre of the process of sustained recovery, far beyond the ‘reflection period’.
Download PDF: The Slavery and Trafficking Survivor Care Standards
Before the Harm is Done: Examining the UK’s response to the prevention of trafficking
September 2018. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (ATMG)
The ATMGs report analyses action taken in the UK since 2012, relating to the prevention of human trafficking and the extent to which it contributes to the UK’s implementation of the 2005 Council of Europe Trafficking Convention and the EU Trafficking Directive requirements. The report concludes that the UK lacks an overall strategy to prevent trafficking in adults and children. The UK’s lack of strategic response means that prevention is often seen through the prism and policies of immigration and crime, hindering effective preventative action and leaving adults and children more vulnerable to exploitation.
- Download PDF: Before the Harm is Done
Brexit & the UK’s fight against modern slavery
July 2017. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
The following paper considers the potential impact of the UK’s withdrawal (‘Brexit’) from the European Union (EU) on efforts to tackle modern slavery. The purpose of this briefing is to review the extent to which the UK’s membership in the EU has influenced national anti-trafficking efforts, and consider if and how Brexit may impact the UK’s ability to combat modern slavery and protect its victims. Where possible, recommendations have been made on the steps to take to mitigate any potential risks posed by Brexit to UK anti-trafficking efforts.
- Download PDF: Brexit & the UK’s fight against modern slavery
“Class Acts? Examining modern slavery legislation across the UK”
October 2016. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
The report analyses anti-slavery legislation across the UK and highlights significant differences in a number of key areas across the three jurisdictions. In particular the research emphasises how the Modern Slavery Act falls behind the legislation in Scotland and Northern Ireland on victim protection measures. It also points out that there is no monitoring framework in place to oversee the implementation of all three Acts across the UK, including data collection and analysis. As with all of the Group’s reports, the research makes recommendations as to improvements in the UK’s anti-trafficking policy and practice.
Time to Deliver
“Time to deliver. Considering pregnancy and parenthood in the UK’s response to human trafficking”.
February 2016. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
This report analyses how the victims of trafficking who are pregnant or have children are ‘systematically overlooked’ in the UK’s anti-trafficking response. It identifies that support to meet this group’s special needs, such as access to safe and appropriate accommodation, childcare, access to specialist healthcare and support for their children, is not systematically provided. Despite pregnancy and parenthood having an often profound impact on the physical and psychological well-being of trafficking victims, the government’s response to trafficking fails to recognise these individuals as being particularly vulnerable.
Joint briefing on Amendment 60 of the Immigration Bill affecting Overseas Domestic Workers
Amendment 60 addressing Overseas Domestic Workers provides a crucial opportunity to protect this vulnerable group from trafficking and slavery. The amendment, proposed by Lord Hylton, implements the key recommendations of a Government commissioned report which found that the right to change employer and to extend leave for 2.5 years are the minimum provisions needed to protect Overseas Domestic Workers from trafficking. It is strongly supported by the Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group, Anti Trafficking and Labour Exploitation Unit, Anti Slavery International, Justice 4 Domestic Workers, Kalayaan, Liberty, Walk Free and Immigration Law Practitioners Association.
ATMG’s Submission to the independent review of the Overseas Domestic Workers’ visa
In March 2015 the Minister for Modern Slavery, Karen Bradley, tasked James Ewins QC to undertake an independent review of the Overseas Domestic Worker (ODW) visa. The review includes consideration of:
- Whether the arrangements for issuing ODW Visas are effective in protecting potential victims from abuse
- Whether there is any evidence that the terms of the Visa, including the link to the specified employer, have led to the trafficking or slavery of domestic workers
- Whether the policies or processes for (i) identifying and (ii) providing support to victims of modern slavery amongst those who entered the country on an ODW visa are effective
- Whether the policies and processes for pursuing those accused of perpetrating modern slavery offences against those on an Overseas Domestic Workers Visa are effective
- The need to maintain the integrity of the immigration system.
Submission on the implementation of the EU Trafficking Directive by the UK Government
The UK Government has recently released the report on the implementation of the European Union Trafficking Directive (EU/2011/36) by the UK. The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group, which was set up to monitor the implementation of the Directive as well as the Council of Europe Convention on Trafficking in Human Beings, has been critical of the Government’s findings.
Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group’s Modern Slavery Bill briefings
The following briefings were supported by the Anti Trafficking Monitoring Group shared with parliamentarians to improve the Modern Slavery Bill going through the parliament.
- A briefing on the Independent Anti-Slavery Comissioner; to welcome a government amendment which allows the Commissioner to oversee victim support and assistance, but continue to call for the role to have greater independence from the government and more direct access to Parliament.
- A briefing on victim protection (Clause 49) to support an amendment to create a duty on the State to provide physical, psychological and social recovery to victims, and a separate amendment to provide for the statutory establishment of the National Referral Mechanism (NRM).
- A briefing to call for the inclusion of a separate child exploitation offence to address the potential prosecution gaps that may result from the existing offences.
- A briefing to welcome the government’s amendments to clause 48 which give child trafficking advocates full legal powers and to seek assurance from the Minister that the provision of advocates will not be dependent on a positive NRM decision.
- A briefing in support of an amendment to reinstate protections for Overseas Domestic Workers (ODWs), to allow them to change employer, renew their visa and be entitled to a 3-month temporary visa to find an alternative place of (domestic) work if they leave an abusive employment situation.
- A briefing which calls for the statutory defence to be strengthened to ensure it works effectively for children, specifically by removing the ‘Reasonable Person Test’.
- A briefing in support of an amendment to Clause 47 to ensure that legal aid could be provided to a person before an application had been made to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) competent authority or before the competent authority had reached its NRM decision.
Trafficking for Forced Criminal Activities and Begging in Europe
September 2014. RACE in Europe Project, lead by Anti-Slavery International.
This report analyses the phenomenon of trafficking into crime such as cannabis cultivation, ATM theft, pickpocketing, bag-snatching, counterfeit DVD selling, benefit fraud and forced sham marriage, as well as being forced to beg. The report explores the situation in the project partner countries (Ireland, the UK, the Czech Republic, and the Netherlands) and provides an overview of the rest of Europe. It exposes the dearth of systematic information and awareness about this type of exploitation amongst the policy makers and justice system actors with very few cases reported in official statistics and many victims misidentified as offenders.
ATMG National Referral Mechanism for Adults and Children
The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group has created proposals for a revised National Referral Mechanism (NRM), one for adults and a separate one for children, to assist the Home Office in its ongoing review of the current system. The NRM is the process through which victims of trafficking are formally identified and supported and has been in place in the UK since 2009.
After it was established, the ATMG has raised concerns about the way in which it operates and has highlighted these in its research reports. The proposed models address these issues and provide workable solutions to them.
ATMG Alternative Modern Slavery Bill
The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (ATMG) has created an Alternative Modern Slavery Bill, to assist in the scrutiny and strengthening of the government’s Modern Slavery Bill currently before the Parliament. At present, the Modern Slavery Bill drafted by the government lacks the necessary provisions to successfully prevent and prosecute modern slavery offences, and protect the victims of these crimes. The provisions contained within this Alternative Bill are those which the ATMG feel are vital for inclusion in UK anti-slavery legislation to ensure it is robust, world-leading and victim-focused. These include a range of offences to capture all forms of modern slavery; comprehensive victim protection measures, including a defence for those who have been forced to commit crimes and a statutory National Referral Mechanism; an Anti-Slavery Commissioner role which has strong powers and a clear independence; and a provision to tackle slavery in supply chains.
Hidden in Plain Sight
Hidden in Plain Sight. Three years on: updated analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons.
October 2013. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
Fourth report in the ATMG series analyses the UK’s response to trafficking four years on from the Council Of Europe anti-trafficking convention coming into force. Whilst there has been a number of improvement in the government’s response to trafficking through the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), the system fails to systematically identify, assist and protect victims of trafficking. The report highlights major problems of the UK’s system, especially looking at victims of trafficking through context of their immigration status, causing the decision making to be unfair and discriminatory.
In the Dock
In the Dock. Examining the UK’s Criminal Justice Response to Trafficking.
June 2013. Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group
This report examines the effectiveness of the UK’s Criminal Justice System’s (CJS) response to trafficking in terms of law, policy and practice. The report found that, in spite of localised examples of good practice, the CJS fails to systematically prosecute traffickers and protect victims’ rights. Despite the Government’s claims to make the UK a “hostile environment” for traffickers, human trafficking is not a policing priority.
All Change: Preventing Trafficking in the UK.
April 2012, Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group.
The new report from The Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group is the result of research carried out between 2010 and 2011 with the aim of examining trafficking prevention in the UK in accordance with the Government’s obligations under the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In particular, it assesses measures instigated by the UK Government to prevent trafficking/re-trafficking, highlights good practice in prevention programming and offers recommendations to strengthen the UK’s ability to prevent trafficking in the future.
Sarah Edwards (with contribution from Rachel Annison).
Wrong kind of victim?
Wrong kind of victim? One year on: an analysis of UK measures to protect trafficked persons
June 2010, Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group
Lorena Arocha; Mike Dottridge
This report by the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group looks at the government’s flagship ‘National Referral Mechanism’ and concludes that the UK’s new anti-trafficking measures are “not fit for purpose” and the Government is breaching its obligations under the European Convention against Trafficking. It also finds that the current system places too much emphasis on the immigration status of trafficked people rather than focusing on protecting the victims of this traumatic crime. The report also includes recommendations for the Government to reform the system.
Rights and Recourse
Rights and Recourse, A Guide to Legal Remedies for Trafficked Persons in the UK
Anti-Slavery International and Eaves Poppy Project, April 2010.
Legal guide by Anti-Slavery International and Eaves Poppy Project warns that victims of trafficking for forced prostitution and forced labour are vulnerable to being re-trafficked because of a failure of the criminal justice system to provide financial compensation for their ordeal. The guide aims to be a starting point to help lawyers take a creative and comprehensive approach in evaluating the legal remedies available to trafficking victims. It also includes two practical case studies and recommendations drawn from the experience of several practitioners.the system.
Opportunities and Obstacles: Trafficking and Compensation 2009
Opportunities and Obstacles: Ensuring access to compensation for trafficked persons in the UK
Anti-Slavery International October 2008
Although there has been an increase in the number of convictions for humantrafficking in the UK, legal remedies and compensation for traffickedpersons have remained inaccessible. This report identifies the legalremedies available to trafficked persons in England andWales andanalyses the effectiveness of each remedy viewed in light of itsaccessibility to trafficked persons.
Janice Lam & Klára Skrivánková
Missing Out: A Study of Child Trafficking in the North-West, North-East and West Midlands
Christine Beddoe, ECPAT UK, 2007
The report highlights the cases of 80 children known or suspected of being trafficked into the UK for sexual exploitation, labour exploitation and forced marriage. More shocking is that 48 of these children have gone missing from social services care and have never been found.
Trafficking for Forced Labour: UK Country Report
Trafficking for Forced Labour: UK country report
The result of research carried out by Anti-Slavery International between 2005 and 2006 with the aim of finding out more about trafficking for forced labour in the United Kingdom. This was a qualitative rather than quantative project, which aimed to provide information about how migrants become trafficked and which industries in the UK are affected.
Also available an executive summary and policy recommendations.
Anti-Slavery International 2006
Cause for Concern?
Cause for Concern? London social services and child trafficking
ECPAT UK’s latest report on child trafficking into the UK. Cause for Concern? includes interviews with social services in all 33 of London’s boroughs to gauge social workers’ awareness of trafficking and record cases of children who have been trafficked to the capital. Twenty-six boroughs reported that they had worked directly with children who had been trafficked or who had been brought into the UK and were living in suspicious circumstances. It includes case studies, statistics and recommendations.
ECPAT UK 2004